Vivax, and for terminal prophylaxis (anti-relapse therapy) after travel. Primaquine is also used in the treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a fungal infection commonly occurring in people with AIDS and, more rarely, in those taking immunosuppressive drugs. vivax in the blood stage through its ability to do oxidative damage to the cell. A single dose of primaquine has rapid and potent ability to kill gametocytes (stage V) of P. vivax in blood; it also kills asexual trophozoites of P. To treat PCP effectively, it is usually combined with clindamycin. However, the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. Hydroxychloroquine metformin Hydroxychloroquine is it water pill The dose of chloroquine is often expressed or calculated as the base each 500 mg tablet of chloroquine phosphate is equivalent to 300 mg chloroquine base. -The pediatric dose should never exceed the adult dose. Chloroquine is one of the oldest anti-malarial agent, effectively used in malarial infections. P. falciparum and vivax are the sensitive types. It is a rapidly acting drug, targeting the asexual stage. It is an effective blood schizonticidal agent. It is gametocidal, except for P. falciparum. Chloroquine is the drug of choice for travel to areas where chloroquine resistance has not been described. Chloroquine is active against the erythrocytic forms Fig. 6.3 of sensitive strains of all species of malaria, and it is also gametocidal against P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. Except for its bitter taste, chloroquine is usually well tolerated and has a low incidence of serious adverse events. Administration of primaquine with food or grapefruit juice increases its oral bioavailibity. However, the WHO has recommended that a single dose of primaquine (0.25 mg/kg) is safe to give even in individuals with G6PD deficiency, for the purpose of preventing transmission of P. Primaquine overdose can cause a dangerous reduction in various blood cell counts, and therefore should be avoided in people at risk for agranulocytosis, which include people with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus, and those taking concurrent medications that also decrease blood cell counts. Primaquine is well-absorbed in the gut and extensively distributed in the body without accumulating in red blood cells. Chloroquine gametocidal Chloroquine Indications, Side Effects, Warnings -, Chloroquine – howMed Hydroxychloroquine zentivaIs mefloquine a chloroquine Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for it started to develop widespread resistance to it. Chloroquine - Wikipedia. Chloroquine - an overview ScienceDirect Topics. Antimalarial Drugs – Malaria Site. The classic treatment is a 3-day course of chloroquine, followed by a 14-day course of primaquine. A shorter course of 5 days of primaquine, started with chloroquine, has been described but is associated with higher relapse rates. However, this is adequate for gametocidal action, which prevents spread of malaria. Aralen Chloroquine is an anti-malaria drug. It also has an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effect. It causes the death of asexual erythrocyte forms of all types of plasmodia. It has a gametocidal effect, with the exception of Plasmodium falciparum exhibits an anti-gametocidal effect. Indications Different anti-malarial drugs are designed to target different steps in life cycle of plasmodium. Malaria is cause by four species of protozoa Plasmodium malariae. P. falciparum. P. vivax. P. ovale. The plasmodium transmitted to human is by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito. Plasmodium is an obligate intracellular protozoa.