Hypnozoite chloroquine resistance

Discussion in 'Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil' started by joost, 29-Feb-2020.

  1. Igor777 XenForo Moderator

    Hypnozoite chloroquine resistance


    Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it.

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    While chloroquine resistance arose 10 years after its introduction, the cases of chloroquine resistance in P. vivax were not reported until 30 years of usage in P. vivax treatment. It has been hypothesized that the delay in the emergence of chloroquine resistance is based on a more complicated multigenic mechanism of resistance in P. vivax. From this representation of the data, there is a wide range of ‘spontaneous’ cures when no primaquine is given. Although there is a fair amount of scatter of response at lower total doses, the upper asymptote of the E max model begins to plateau at the total dose associated with 15 mg/day for 14 days. By contrast, a combination of chloroquine and primaquine has mainly been used historically for the treatment of P. vivax malaria. However, resistance to chloroquine now requires partnering of primaquine with other blood schizontocidal agents such as artemisinin, which is effective against P. vivax parasites in the bloodstream 62, 63, 64.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead.

    Hypnozoite chloroquine resistance

    CDC - Malaria - Diagnosis & Treatment United States - Treatment U. S., Killing the hypnozoite – drug discovery approaches to prevent relapse.

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  7. Killing the hypnozoite – drug discovery approaches to prevent relapse in Plasmodium vivax. chloroquine is no longer used as a standard treatment. Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax also appears to be expanding its territory in SE Asia. 17 For these reasons. While the community waits for hypnozoite biomarkers to become available.

    • Killing the hypnozoite – drug discovery approaches to..
    • Do hypnozoites cause relapse in malaria? - ScienceDirect.
    • Special Issue Article Killing the hypnozoite – drug discovery..

    Background. Evidence for decreasing chloroquine CQ efficacy against Plasmodium vivax has been reported from many endemic countries in the world. In Ethiopia, P. vivax accounts for 40% of all malaria cases and CQ is the first-line drug for vivax malaria. Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Certain types of malaria, resistant strains, and complicated cases typically require different or additional medication. Hydroxychloroquine can be detected in the cord blood at delivery in concentrations similar to those in the maternal serum Costedoat-Chalumeau 2002. In animal reproduction studies with chloroquine, accumulation in fetal ocular tissues was observed and remained for several months following drug elimination from the rest of the body.

     
  8. Riint Well-Known Member

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